Tetanus (lockjaw) is a preventable but dangerous bacterial infection that causes muscle spasms, trouble opening the mouth (lockjaw), trouble swallowing, and seizures. Usually found in dirt and soil, tetanus bacteria typically enter the body through a wound or cut.
Tetanus bacteria thrive only in the absence of oxygen. The deeper and narrower the wound, the less oxygen is around it, and the greater the possibility of tetanus. For example, tetanus bacteria can thrive in a puncture wound from a dirty nail.
Following the recommended immunization schedule helps prevent tetanus. Before age 6, children receive a series of tetanus shots (DTaP). Then, teens and adults get regular tetanus booster shots.
A person who has a dirty cut or wound should get a tetanus shot as soon as possible if 10 years have passed since his or her last tetanus immunization.
Current as of: September 20, 2021
Author: Healthwise Staff
Medical Review:Adam Husney MD - Family Medicine & John Pope MD - Pediatrics & Anne C. Poinier MD - Internal Medicine & Kathleen Romito MD - Family Medicine & W. David Colby IV MSc, MD, FRCPC - Infectious Disease & Christine Hahn MD - Epidemiology