pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV)
pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV)
How It Works
Pneumococcal vaccines are given to protect people from becoming infected with the pneumococcus bacteria. The vaccines contain small amounts of weakened bacteria and are given as a shot (injection). This helps your body make chemicals called antibodies that can then recognize and destroy pneumococcus bacteria if you are exposed to them later.
Why It Is Used
Pneumococcus is a type of bacteria that can cause severe infections, such as pneumonia, meningitis, and blood infections (sepsis). These infections can be serious and can even cause death, especially in people who have impaired immune systems, older adults, and children younger than 2 years of age.
Doctors use two types of pneumococcal vaccines for routine immunization: pneumococcal conjugate (PCV) or pneumococcal polysaccharide (PPV). The type of vaccine used depends on a person's age.
- Pneumococcal conjugate (PCV)
- PCV is recommended for routine use in babies who get 3 or 4 doses depending on your provincial recommendations.
- Children from 1 to 18 years old may be recommended to get an extra dose if they did not get all the doses as a baby. They may also need an extra dose if they have certain medical conditions that place them at high risk for infection with pneumococcus.
- The vaccine may be recommended for adults at high risk for infection with pneumococcus. This recommendation depends on the medical condition the adult has and on provincial recommendations.
- Pneumococcal polysaccharide (PPV) for people at high risk
- PPV is generally recommended for all people 65 and older and for those ages 2 to 64 who have a chronic disease or illness, an impaired immune system, or who live in areas or among social groups where there is an increased risk for pneumonia or meningitis.
- Usually, you only need one dose of PPV. Sometimes doctors recommend a second dose for some people, especially if they have a chronic disease. Talk with your doctor about whether you need a second dose.
How Well It Works
PCV has about a 97% effectiveness rate in preventing pneumococcal disease in healthy children who received all four vaccine doses and a 94% rate for healthy children who received two doses.
Some research shows that PPV helps prevent pneumonia in younger healthy people but not in older people or those with impaired immune systems.footnote 1 Other studies show that the vaccine does not reduce the risk of pneumonia in adults, but it can prevent some of the serious complications of pneumonia.footnote 2
Both PCV and PPV are safe medicines. Side effects are usually mild and may include:
- Redness, warmth, or swelling where the shot was given
- Fussiness, grouchiness.
- Little interest in eating.
- Slight fever.
Even though serious allergic reactions are rare with these medicines, call your doctor or local health unit right away if you or your child has trouble breathing, a high fever, or anything unusual after having the shot.
A child who has had a severe allergic reaction to a previous dose of PCV should not get another dose of this vaccine. Tell your doctor or nurse if your child has had a severe reaction to any vaccine or has severe allergies.
See Drug Reference for a full list of side effects. (Drug Reference is not available in all systems.)
What To Think About
Medicines, such as penicillin, used to work well for the treatment of pneumonia and meningitis. These diseases have recently become resistant to these medicines. For this reason it is important to try to prevent the infections by having the PCV or PPV vaccine.
PCV can prevent some ear infections. But ear infections have many causes and PCV only works to prevent some of them. Your child may still have ear infections, even after getting a PCV shot.
PPV has not been studied in pregnant women. There is no evidence that the vaccine is harmful to either the mother or the baby. Pregnant women should talk with a doctor about getting the medicine. Women who are at high risk of pneumococcal disease should have the shot before becoming pregnant, if possible.
Adaptation Date: 11/1/2019
Adapted By: HealthLink BC
Adaptation Reviewed By: HealthLink BC