Complications of Grief
Complications that can develop from grieving include depression, anxiety, suicidal thoughts, and physical illness. If you or someone you know experiences any of the following problems, contact a doctor or mental health professional for counselling, medicine, or both.
Depression is the most common condition that can develop when a person is grieving. Depression is common in adults who experience a divorce or death of a spouse.
High levels of anxiety
Anxiety also is common during the grieving process. But anxiety can last longer than expected. And it can also become intense and include extreme guilt. Anxiety can:
- Make you feel like you are losing control of your emotions. Overwhelming fear is also common.
- Trigger episodes of physical symptoms (anxiety attacks) that you might mistake for a heart attack. During an anxiety attack, you are likely to have a feeling of intense fear or terror, difficulty breathing, chest pain or tightness, heartbeat changes, dizziness, sweating, and shaking.
Sometimes when grieving, people have thoughts of ending their own lives. If you have been depressed or have had thoughts of suicide in the past, you may be vulnerable to having suicidal thoughts while grieving.
Call 911 or other emergency services immediately if you or someone you know is threatening to carry out suicide. Any thoughts of suicide must be taken seriously. The threat of carrying out the plan is very real if a person is thinking about suicide and:
- Has the means (such as weapons or medicines) available to harm himself or herself or do harm to another person.
- Has set a time and place to end his or her own life.
- Thinks that there is no other way to end his or her pain.
Grieving stresses the body, weakens the immune system, and in general makes us more prone to illness, aches, and pains. People who have chronic medical conditions may have a recurrence or their symptoms may get worse when they are grieving. Adults who lose a loved one sometimes develop new health problems. Children can also have stress-induced physical problems while grieving, despite their youth and apparent resilience.
Post-traumatic stress disorder
People who experience a traumatic loss are at risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD is an intense emotional and psychological response to a very disturbing or traumatic event, such as a rape, assault, natural disaster, severe injury, war, torture, or death. You can develop PTSD symptoms immediately following such an event. Or PTSD may develop months or even years later.
Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder may include:
- Persistent and painful re-experiencing of the event through dreams (nightmares) or while awake (flashbacks).
- Emotional numbness, or inability to feel or express emotions toward family, friends, and loved ones.
- Avoiding any reminders of the event.
- Being easily angered or aroused, "on edge," or easily startled (hyperarousal).
Counselling and medicines (such as antidepressants and antianxiety medicines) can be helpful for people who have post-traumatic stress disorder.
Complicated grief may also be called persistent complex bereavement disorder, separation trauma, traumatic grief, or prolonged-acute grief.
- A preoccupation with the loved one.
- Excessive loneliness.
- Longing and yearning for the loved one.
- Difficulty doing everyday things without the loved one.
Complicated grief is different from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). With PTSD, a person is anxious and fearful that the traumatic event that caused the loss will occur again. In complicated grief, anxiety results because the person is searching and yearning for his or her loved one.
If you or someone you know has symptoms of complicated grief, seek help from a professional counsellor specializing in grief counselling.
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Primary Medical Reviewer Anne C. Poinier, MD - Internal Medicine
Donald Sproule, MDCM, CCFP - Family Medicine
Specialist Medical Reviewer Sidney Zisook, MD - Psychiatry
Current as ofApril 3, 2017
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