Testicular injury or failure, either present at birth (congenital) or associated with radiation or toxic chemical exposure.
Cancer treatment with certain kinds of chemotherapy or radiation.
Antibodies that attack sperm and that also may be present in semen. Sperm antibodies sometimes develop when a man's sperm has been exposed to his immune system (outside of the testicles). This may happen after a vasectomy, an infection, or an injury to the testicles.footnote 2
Drug use (some prescription medicines, and cannabis [marijuana] and tobacco use).
American Society for Reproductive Medicine and Society for Male Reproduction and Urology (2008). Evaluation of the azoospermic male. Fertility and Sterility, 90(Suppl 5): S74–S77.
Fritz MA, Speroff L (2011). Male infertility. In Clinical Gynecologic Endocrinology and Infertility, 8th ed., pp. 1249–1292. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
Current as of: February 11, 2020
Author: Healthwise Staff Medical Review: Kathleen Romito MD - Family Medicine Anne C. Poinier MD - Internal Medicine Adam Husney MD - Family Medicine Femi Olatunbosun MB, FRCSC - Obstetrics and Gynecology
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