human papillomavirus 9-valent vaccine (HPV9) (types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58)
human papillomavirus bivalent vaccine (HPV2) (types 16, 18)
How It Works
These vaccines are given in two or three shots (injections) over 6 months. In response to these vaccines, which contain an inactive form of human papillomavirus (HPV), your body makes antibodies against the virus. This response is known as active immunity.
Why It Is Used
The HPV (human papillomavirus) vaccine protects against HPV. HPV is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI). There are many types of HPV. Some types of the virus can cause genital warts. Other types can cause cervical cancer and some uncommon cancers, such as vaginal and anal cancer. Cervarix and Gardasil 9 are the two types of HPV vaccines. They protect against the most common HPV types that can cause serious problems. Both vaccines protect against HPV types 16 and 18. The HPV9 vaccine protects against five more types that can cause cancer (HPV 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58) and also protects against HPV types 6 and 11 that can cause genital warts.
Cervarix vaccine is recommended for girls and women 9 to 45 years of age, but is not provided free. Gardasil 9 vaccine can be given to both males and females but is only provided free to eligible individuals.
It's important that females get the vaccine before they begin to have sex. Females up to 45 years of age may benefit from getting an HPV vaccine, even if they are already having sex or have had abnormal Pap test, cervical cancer, genital warts, or HPV infection. These females may not yet have HPV infection or the HPV types that the vaccines block.
HPV vaccine recommendations may be different in your province or territory. Check with your doctor or local health unit to find the HPV vaccine recommendations in your area.
How Well It Works
For people who do not have HPV, the vaccine is nearly 100% effective in preventing infection by the most common types of HPV that can cause cervical cancer in females and genital warts in males and females. But the vaccine does not affect existing cervical changes caused by HPV.footnote 3 And the vaccine does not protect against all types of HPV that can cause cancer and genital warts.
Mild reactions to the HPV vaccine are common and include:footnote 4
- Pain, redness, swelling, or itchiness where the shot was given.
Even though serious allergic reactions are rare with Gardasil, call your doctor or local health unit right away if you or your child has trouble breathing, a high fever, or anything unusual after having the shot.
A person who has had a severe allergic reaction to a previous dose of the vaccine or to yeast should not get another dose. Tell your doctor or nurse if you or your child has had a severe reaction to any vaccine or has severe allergies.
See Drug Reference for a full list of side effects. (Drug Reference is not available in all systems.)
What To Think About
People with a mild illness, such as a cold, can get the HPV vaccine. But if they are more ill, they should wait until they are better.
Pregnant women should not get the HPV vaccine.
Because the vaccine does not protect against all types of HPV, women who have received the HPV vaccine still need regular Pap tests after they become sexually active to check for changes in the cells of the cervix.
Your provincial or territorial health ministry may not yet cover the cost of the HPV vaccine outside of school-based vaccination programs. You may have to pay for the vaccine yourself.
- National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) (2012). Update on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines. Canada Communicable Disease Report, 38(ACS-1): 1–62. Also available online: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/ccdr-rmtc/12vol38/acs-dcc-1/index-eng.php#a5.
- National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) (2017). Updated Recommendations on Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines: 9-valent HPV vaccine 2-dose immunization schedule and the use of HPV vaccines in immunocompromised populations. Government of Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/publications/healthy-living/updated-recommendations-human-papillomavirus-immunization-schedule-immunocompromised-populations.html. Accessed October 8, 2018.
- National Advisory Committee on Immunization (2007). Statement on human papillomavirus vaccine. Canada Communicable Disease Report, 33(ACS-2): 1–32.
- U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2007). Human papillomavirus: What you need to know. Vaccine Information Statement. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases. Available online: http://www.cdc.gov/nip/publications/VIS/vis-hpv.pdf.
Adaptation Date: 11/5/2019
Adapted By: HealthLink BC
Adaptation Reviewed By: HealthLink BC