Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine
British Columbia Specific Information
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs). For information about HPV, see HealthLinkBC File #101a Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection and Genital Warts.
Health Canada approves the HPV vaccines Cervarix® (HPV2) and Gardasil® (HPV4) for use in women up to the age of 45, and Gardasil® for men ages 9 and older. Both vaccines protect against infection by HPV types that cause most cases of cervical cancer and several less common cancers. Gardasil® also protects against infection by the HPV types that cause most cases of genital warts. The vaccines prevent HPV infection but do not get rid of the infection once it has occurred. For information about the HPV vaccines, see HealthLinkBC File #101b Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines. For information on other HPV vaccine programs in B.C., visit ImmunizeBC – HPV (Human Papillomavirus).
For more information on STIs, sexual health information, where to get tested and other sexual health services in your area, visit SmartSexResource
|Generic Name||Brand Name|
|human papillomavirus quadrivalent vaccine (types 6, 11, 16, 18)||Gardasil|
|human papillomavirus vaccine (types 16, 18)||Cervarix|
How It Works
These vaccines are given in two or three shots (injections) over 6 months. In response to these vaccines, which contain an inactive form of human papillomavirus (HPV), your body makes antibodies against the virus. This response is known as active immunity.
Why It Is Used
HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI). There are more than 100 known types of HPV, some of which are known to cause cervical cancer or genital warts. Both Gardasil and Cervarix protect against the two most common types of cancer-causing HPV (types 16 and 18), while Gardasil also protects against two viruses that can cause genital warts (types 6 and 11).
The HPV vaccine is approved for females 9 to 45 years of age and males 9 to 26 years of age. Gardasil is used for males. Females can get either vaccine.
It's important that girls get the vaccine before they begin to have sex. Women up to 45 years of age may benefit from getting an HPV vaccine, even if they are already having sex or have had abnormal Pap test, cervical cancer, genital warts, or HPV infection. These women may not yet have HPV infection or the HPV types that the vaccines block.footnote 1
HPV vaccine recommendations may be different in your province or territory. Check with your doctor or local health unit to find the HPV vaccine recommendations in your area.
How Well It Works
For people who do not have HPV, the vaccine is nearly 100% effective in preventing infection by the most common types of HPV that can cause cervical cancer in females and genital warts in males and females. But the vaccine does not affect existing cervical changes caused by HPV.footnote 2 And the vaccine does not protect against all types of HPV that can cause cancer and genital warts.
Mild reactions to the HPV vaccine are common and include:footnote 3
- Pain, redness, swelling, or itchiness where the shot was given.
Even though serious allergic reactions are rare with Gardasil, call your doctor or local health unit right away if you or your child has trouble breathing, a high fever, or anything unusual after having the shot.
A person who has had a severe allergic reaction to a previous dose of the vaccine or to yeast should not get another dose. Tell your doctor or nurse if you or your child has had a severe reaction to any vaccine or has severe allergies.
See Drug Reference for a full list of side effects. (Drug Reference is not available in all systems.)
What To Think About
People with a mild illness, such as a cold, can get the HPV vaccine. But if they are more ill, they should wait until they are better.
Pregnant women should not get the HPV vaccine.
Because the vaccine does not protect against all types of HPV, women who have received the HPV vaccine still need regular Pap tests after they become sexually active to check for changes in the cells of the cervix.
Your provincial or territorial health ministry may not yet cover the cost of the HPV vaccine outside of school-based vaccination programs. You may have to pay for the vaccine yourself.
- National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) (2012). Update on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines. Canada Communicable Disease Report, 38(ACS-1): 1–62. Also available online: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/ccdr-rmtc/12vol38/acs-dcc-1/index-eng.php#a5.
- National Advisory Committee on Immunization (2007). Statement on human papillomavirus vaccine. Canada Communicable Disease Report, 33(ACS-2): 1–32.
- U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2007). Human papillomavirus: What you need to know. Vaccine Information Statement. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases. Available online: http://www.cdc.gov/nip/publications/VIS/vis-hpv.pdf.
Adaptation Date: 7/13/2016
Adapted By: HealthLink BC
Adaptation Reviewed By: HealthLink BC
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