Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)

HealthLinkBC File Number: 
08o
Last Updated: 
February 2017
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How do I know what my sexual health status is?

Routine testing will tell you if you have a sexually transmitted infection (STI) like gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, or HIV. Some STIs do not have symptoms, so you can have them without knowing. Finding and treating an STI early has benefits:

  • It reduces the chances of passing the STI on to your partner(s).
  • You are less likely to develop complications, like pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility from STIs, or immune system failure from advanced HIV disease.
  • If you have an STI, your chance of getting or passing on HIV increases. Treating STIs and HIV lessens the chance of HIV being transmitted.

Exposure to an STI can happen any time you have sexual contact with another person that involves the genitals, the mouth (oral), or the rectum (anal). The more partners you have, the more likely you are to be exposed to an STI.

Talk to your health care provider about getting tested for STIs, or go to your local sexual health clinic. In some areas, you can go online to request a test for some STIs at https://getcheckedonline.com/Pages/default.aspx.

Can vaccines provide protection?

Some STIs, such as hepatitis A and B, and human papillomavirus (HPV), can be prevented with vaccines. Talk to your health care provider about how to get these vaccinations.

How do I talk about prevention?

Talk to your partner(s) about preventing STIs before having oral, genital, or anal sex.

  • Make sure your partner(s) has been tested and treated for STIs.
  • Avoid sexual contact if you or your partners have symptoms of an STI, have been exposed to an STI, or are being treated for an STI.
  • Discuss using protection, such as condoms, dental dam barriers, and lubricant.
  • Alcohol, and some prescription and illegal drugs can interfere with your ability to have a conversation and make decisions to have safer sex.

If you have difficulty discussing safer sex with your partner(s), talk about it with your health care provider or counselor.

For tips on how to talk to your partner, visit the BC Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC) Smart Sex Resource http://smartsexresource.com/sex-talk/talk-about-it.

What are some important facts about condoms?

  • Male condoms that prevent STIs can be made of natural (latex) or synthetic (polyurethane, nitrile, polyisoprene) rubbers. They can be used during vaginal, anal or oral sex. For more information about male condoms, visit Smart Sex Resource https://smartsexresource.com/topics/condoms.
  • Female condoms are made from synthetic rubbers. They can be used during vaginal or anal sex, but they have not been approved for anal sex. For more information about female condoms, visit Smart Sex Resource https://smartsexresource.com/topics/female-condom.
  • Condoms made from sheep intestine do NOT protect against STIs.
  • Condoms made from rubber prevent STIs by preventing sexual and body fluids from being exchanged during sex. Synthetic rubber condoms can be used by people with latex allergies.
  • Condoms are less effective at protecting against STIs passed by skin-to-skin contact, such as herpes simplex, genital warts (human papilloma virus), and syphilis.
  • Do not use expired condoms.
  • Do not reuse condoms.
  • Store condoms at room temperature.
  • Keep condoms away from sharp objects.
  • Use only water-based lubricants with the male latex condom. Oil-based lubricants, such as petroleum jelly, lotion or baby oil, can weaken and destroy latex.
  • Water or oil-based lubricant may be used with polyurethane condoms.
  • Female and male condoms should not be used at the same time. Using 2 condoms together may result in a condom breaking.
  • Condoms can have minute flaws or break during use. If a condom breaks, emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) or copper IUD (intrauterine device) can prevent pregnancy. These should be started as soon as possible. For more information, talk to your health care provider. For more information about emergency contraception, see HealthLinkBC File #91b Emergency Contraception (EC).
  • Condoms and emergency contraception are available at most pharmacies.

How do I put on a male condom?

To use a male condom, follow these steps:

  1. Wash your hands.
  2. Carefully open the package and take the condom out. Avoid using teeth, scissors or other sharp objects, as they can damage the condom.
  3. Make sure that the rolled-up condom rim faces outward.
  4. Put the condom on the penis when it is hard, erect and before any sexual touching.
  5. Pinch the tip of the condom to remove any trapped air and then unroll the condom to the base of the erect penis.
  6. After sex and before the penis becomes soft, hold the rim of the condom against the penis so the ejaculated semen will not spill out and then carefully pull out the penis.
  7. Slide the condom gently off the penis, knot the open end and throw it in the garbage.

How do I put on a female condom?

A female condom looks like a small, clear and narrow bag. It may be inserted into the vagina up to 2 hours before sex but most people choose to insert it 2 to 20 minutes before.

To use a female condom, follow these steps:

  1. Wash your hands.
  2. Carefully open the package and take the condom out. Avoid using teeth, scissors or other sharp objects, as they can damage the condom.
  3. Find a comfortable position lying down, sitting with your knees apart or standing with one foot raised on a stool. Then squeeze the small ring and insert the condom straight into the vagina as far as it will go.
  4. Put a finger inside the condom and push the small ring inside as far as possible. Keep the outer ring of the condom outside of the vagina. The outer ring will lie flat against the body when the penis is inside the condom.
  5. Using lubricant with the female condom helps to keep it in place during sex.
  6. When the penis goes into the vagina, make sure that it goes inside the condom.
  7. Right after sex, remove the condom by gently twisting the outer ring to keep semen from spilling out, pull out the condom and throw it into the garbage.

For More Information

For more information about sexually transmitted infections (STIs), visit the BC Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC) Smart Sex Resource http://smartsexresource.com/.

Is it an emergency?

If you or someone in your care has chest pains, difficulty breathing, or severe bleeding, it could be a life-threatening emergency. Call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number immediately.
If you are concerned about a possible poisoning or exposure to a toxic substance, call Poison Control now at 1-800-567-8911.

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