What is traveller's diarrhea?
Traveller's diarrhea is a common medical problem for people travelling from developed, industrialized countries to developing areas of the world.
High-risk areas for traveller's diarrhea include developing countries in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and Latin America. Low-risk areas include the developed countries of North America, Central Europe, Australia, and Japan.
What causes it?
Traveller's diarrhea is usually caused by a bacterial infection. Bacteria such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), Campylobacter, Shigella, or Salmonella are the most common causes. These bacteria are in water contaminated by human or animal stools. Drinking water, water used to wash food, or irrigation water may be affected. When the traveller drinks this water or eats contaminated food, he or she is likely to get diarrhea.
Common sources of bacteria that cause diarrhea are undercooked or raw foods, contaminated food, or contaminated water (including ice cubes).
What are the symptoms?
Traveller's diarrhea can be mild to severe. Most people who develop traveller's diarrhea experience symptoms within the first 2 weeks, and often within 2 to 3 days, of arriving in a developing area. Symptoms include:
- Abdominal cramps.
- Mild to severe dehydration.
- General lack of energy, nausea, and vomiting.
- Fever, vomiting, and stools with blood or mucus. These symptoms mean you have serious diarrhea, which is more likely to lead to problems with dehydration. Dehydration may alter the effect of any medicines being taken, such as oral contraceptives or antimalarials.
How is traveller's diarrhea treated?
Treatment for traveller's diarrhea includes drinking fluids to avoid dehydration, taking non-prescription medicines, and in some cases, antibiotics and intravenous (IV) fluids.
- Take frequent, small sips of bottled or boiled water or a rehydration drink.
- If possible, drink a solution made with World Health Organization (WHO) oral rehydration salts. Packets of the salts are available at stores and pharmacies in most developing countries. Add one packet to boiled or treated water, making sure to read the instructions regarding the proper amounts of salts and water. Drink the solution within 12 hours if kept at room temperature, or within 24 hours if refrigerated.
- Let your stomach rest. Start to eat small amounts of mild foods if you feel like it. After your diarrhea is gone, you may eat a regular diet again.
Children 2 years old or younger are at high risk of dehydration from diarrhea. If your child has diarrhea:
- Give your child a solution of WHO rehydration salts in addition to your child's regular food as long as diarrhea continues. If your baby has trouble keeping the liquids down, try giving frequent sips by spoon.
- Continue breastfeeding normally. Bottle-fed babies should continue their usual formula.
- Feed your child starches, cereals, yogurt, fruits, and vegetables.
- Seek medical help immediately if you or your child has bloody diarrhea, fever, or persistent vomiting, and give rehydration fluids in the meantime.
- Your doctor may recommend an over-the-counter medicine. These may include bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol) or loperamide (Imodium). Read and follow all instructions on the label. Do not use these medicines if your doctor does not recommend them.
- Be safe with medicines. If your doctor recommends prescription medicine, take it as prescribed. Call your doctor if you think you are having a problem with your medicine. You will get more details on the specific medicines your doctor prescribes.
- If your doctor prescribes antibiotics, take them as directed. Do not stop taking them just because you feel better. You need to take the full course of antibiotics.
How can you help prevent it?
The best way to prevent traveller's diarrhea is to avoid food or water that may be contaminated. A good rule of thumb for food safety is, "If it's not boiled, well-cooked, or peeled, don't eat it." Raw seafood and milk products usually are high-risk foods for bacterial contamination. Dry foods, such as breads, or fruits that you can peel are safe to eat.
Avoid drinking local water where you are travelling. Beverages that are usually safe to drink include:
- Tea and coffee if made with boiled water.
- Carbonated bottled water or soda pop.
- Bottled beer and wine.
Water also can be filtered or treated with iodine to make it safe to drink.
Also, be aware that contaminated water may be used to wash fruits and vegetables, clean utensils and plates, and make ice cubes. Brushing your teeth with untreated water also may increase your risk of infection.
Avoid eating food from street vendors where flies can transmit bacteria and poor hygiene practices are more likely to contaminate foods. If you purchase food at an outdoor market, make sure you boil it, cook it thoroughly, or peel it before you eat it.
Good handwashing is important in preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Washing with treated water or using alcohol wipes or antibacterial gels to disinfect your hands are good ways to reduce your risk of getting an infectious disease.
Talk with your doctor about antibiotics you can carry with you on your trip and instructions on when to use them just in case you should develop diarrhea.
Other information sources
Health Canada's Travel Health program offers information on international disease outbreaks and treatment and prevention guidelines. Local health units can also access this information to help you determine what prevention measures—such as vaccines, antimalarial medication, or supplies to treat water—are appropriate for the area of the world you are travelling to. Travel Health also offers a website (www.travelhealth.gc.ca) with updated information for travellers.
Resources for medical care in a foreign country include embassies or consulates and major hotels. For English-speaking travellers, multinational corporations or credit card companies also may have referrals for local medical care in the foreign country.