Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening blood chemical (electrolyte) imbalance that develops in a person with diabetes when the cells do not get the sugar (glucose) they need for energy. As a result, the body breaks down fat instead of glucose and produces and releases substances called ketones into the bloodstream.
People with type 1 diabetes and some people with type 2 diabetes are at risk for DKA if they do not take enough insulin, have a severe infection or other illness, or become severely dehydrated.
Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include:
Flushed, hot, dry skin.
A strong, fruity breath odour.
Restlessness, drowsiness, or difficulty waking up. Young children may lack interest in their normal activities.
Rapid, deep breathing.
Loss of appetite, abdominal pain, and vomiting.
Severe diabetic ketoacidosis can cause difficulty breathing, brain swelling (cerebral edema), coma, or death.
Treatment involves giving insulin and fluids through a vein and closely monitoring and replacing electrolytes.
Medical Review:E. Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal Medicine & Donald Sproule, MDCM, CCFP - Family Medicine & Adam Husney, MD - Family Medicine & Kathleen Romito, MD - Family Medicine & Rhonda O'Brien, MS, RD, CDE - Certified Diabetes Educator