Repair of Rectocele or Enterocele
A rectocele occurs when the end of the large intestine (rectum) pushes against and moves the back wall of the vagina. An enterocele (small bowel prolapse) occurs when the small bowel presses against and moves the upper wall of the vagina. Rectoceles and enteroceles develop if the lower pelvic muscles become damaged by labour, childbirth, or a previous pelvic surgery or when the muscles are weakened by aging. A rectocele or an enterocele can be present at birth (congenital), though this is rare.
A rectocele or an enterocele may become large or more obvious when you strain or bear down (for example, during a bowel movement). A rectocele and an enterocele may occur together.
Because rectocele and enterocele are defects of the pelvic supporting tissue and not the bowel wall, they are treated most successfully with surgery that repairs the vaginal wall. This surgery pulls together the stretched or torn tissue in the area of prolapse. Surgery will also strengthen the wall of the vagina to prevent prolapse from recurring. Unless there is another health problem that would require an abdominal incision, rectoceles and enteroceles are usually repaired through the vagina.
What To Expect
General anesthesia is usually used for repair of a rectocele or enterocele. You may stay in the hospital from 1 to 2 days. Most women can return to their normal activities in about 6 weeks. Avoid strenuous activity for the first 6 weeks. And increase your activity level gradually.
Normal bowel function returns within 2 to 4 weeks. It is important to avoid constipation during this time. Your doctor will give you special bowel care instructions. But it is important to include sources of fibre and adequate fluids in your diet. Try to drink about 6 to 8 glasses of water a day.
Most women are able to resume sexual intercourse in about 6 weeks.
Why It Is Done
Surgical repair of rectoceles and enteroceles is used to manage symptoms such as movement of the intestine that pushes against the wall of the vagina, low back pain, and painful intercourse. An enterocele may not cause symptoms until it is so large that it bulges into the midpoint of the vaginal canal.
Rectocele and enterocele often occur with other pelvic organ prolapse, so tell your doctor about other symptoms you may be having. If your doctor finds a bladder prolapse (cystocele), urethral prolapse (urethrocele), or uterine prolapse during your pelvic examination, that problem can also be repaired during surgery.
How Well It Works
Not much is known about how well the surgery works over time. The surgery is more likely to be successful if the woman can avoid constipation, does not go through pregnancy and delivery, and does not have any other pelvic organ prolapse.footnote 1
Risks of rectocele and enterocele repair are uncommon but include:
- Urinary retention.
- Bladder injury.
- Bowel or rectal injury.
- Painful intercourse.
- Formation of an abnormal connection or opening between two organs (fistula).
- Tarnay CM (2007). Pelvic organ prolapse. In AH DeCherney et al., eds., Current Diagnosis and Treatment Obstetrics and Gynecology, 10th ed., pp. 720–734. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical.
Current as of: November 22, 2021
Author: Healthwise Staff
Sarah Marshall MD - Family Medicine
Kathleen Romito MD - Family Medicine
Martin J. Gabica MD - Family Medicine
Femi Olatunbosun MB, FRCSC - Obstetrics and Gynecology
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