Nutrition During Pregnancy

Topic Overview

A balanced, nutritious diet during pregnancy is important to maintain your health and nourish your baby. In general, pregnant women need to increase their daily caloric intake by 340 calories in the second trimester and 450 calories in the third trimester.footnote 3 This is about 2 or 3 extra food guide servings a day.footnote 1

In general, pregnant women in their second and third trimesters need to eat 2 or 3 extra food guide servings a day. Talk to your doctor or a dietitian about your nutrition.

Healthy eating

Eating a variety of foods can help you get all the nutrients you need. Your body needs protein, carbohydrate, and fats for energy. Good sources of nutrients are:

  • Unsaturated fats like olive oil and canola oil, nuts, and fish.
  • Carbohydrate from whole grains, fruits, vegetables, legumes (peas, beans, and lentils), and low-fat milk products.
  • Lean protein such as fish that are low in mercury, poultry without skin, low-fat milk products, and legumes.

Eating healthy foods during pregnancy is good for your overall health and for the health of your baby. You may already have a healthy diet, or you may need to make some changes to eat healthier.

Healthy Eating: Changing Your Eating Habits
Healthy Eating: Making Healthy Choices When You Shop
Healthy Eating: Cutting Unhealthy Fats From Your Diet

It's also important to eat plenty of fruits and vegetables. These not only give you necessary nutrients but also help you get fibre. Planning your meals can help you add healthy foods to your diet.

Quick Tips: Adding Fruits and Vegetables to Your Diet
Meal Planning: Menu and Grocery List ( What is a PDF document? )

Vitamin A

A balanced diet will give you enough vitamin A for the healthy development of your baby. Too much vitamin A may cause birth defects. Do not take individual vitamin A or fish liver oil supplements during pregnancy. Limit how much liver and liver products (such as liverwurst or liver sausage) you eat. Liver is high in vitamin A. If you eat liver, ask your doctor about how much is right for you.

Folic acid

Folic acid is a B vitamin. Taking folic acid before and during early pregnancy reduces the chance of having a baby with a neural tube defect or other birth defects.

Take at least 400 mcg of folic acid every day for at least 2 to 3 months before trying to get pregnant and while you are pregnant.footnote 2 Some women need higher doses. Talk with your health professional about how much folic acid you need.

Follow your doctor's advice about how to get higher amounts of folic acid. Don't just take more multivitamins. You could get too much of the other substances that are in the multivitamin.


You will need more iron during your pregnancy than you did before. This extra iron supports the extra blood in your system and helps with the growth of the placenta and the fetus. Taking iron supplements in the first trimester may aggravate morning sickness. If this is a concern to you, talk to your health care provider.

Most pregnant women need 16 to 20 mg of iron from a supplement each day.footnote 1 Most prenatal vitamins include iron. Women who are pregnant with twins or more may need more iron. Talk to your doctor about the amount of iron that is right for you.

Iron supplements can cause an upset stomach and constipation. Taking your iron at bedtime may decrease the chance of stomach upset. Your body absorbs iron best in small amounts when you eat it with vitamin C, so you may want to take your iron throughout the day.


Calcium is needed for the development of your baby's bones. You can get enough calcium in your diet by eating or drinking foods from the milk and alternatives group each day. Good sources of calcium from non-milk sources include:

    • Greens (such as mustard and turnip greens), bok choy, kale, and watercress.
    • Broccoli.
    • Tofu that is "calcium-set."
    • Calcium-fortified orange juice.
    • Calcium-fortified soy and rice beverages.
    • Canned fish with bones (such as salmon and sardines).
    • Cooked beans, legumes, and lentils.
    • Blackstrap molasses.

Health Tools

Health Tools help you make wise health decisions or take action to improve your health.



  1. Health Canada (2009). Prenatal nutrition guidelines for health professionals: Background on Canada's Food Guide. Available online:
  2. Wilson RD, et al. (2015). Pre-conception folic acid and multivitamin supplementation for the primary and secondary prevention of neural tube defects and other folic acid-sensitive congenital anomalies. SOGC Clinical Practice Guideline No. 324. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada 37(6): 534–549. Accessed July 20, 2015.
  3. Kaiser LL, Campbell CG (2014). Practice paper of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: Nutrition and lifestyle for a healthy pregnancy outcome. eatrightPro. Accessed November 16, 2017.

Other Works Consulted

  • Health Canada (2009). Prenatal nutrition guidelines for health professionals: Background on Canada's Food Guide. Available online:


Adaptation Date: 8/13/2019

Adapted By: HealthLink BC

Adaptation Reviewed By: HealthLink BC

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