Medical History and Physical Examination for HIV Infection
When you are first diagnosed with HIV, your doctor will check your current health status. He or she will ask questions about your current symptoms and past health to find out whether you have had any HIV-related illnesses, whether you have medicine allergies, whether your immunizations are up-to-date, and whether you have ever been hospitalized for illness or surgery.
Many of the tests a doctor does during the initial examination will be repeated during regular checkups to monitor changes in your health.
You can help your doctor diagnose and treat your condition by being prepared to answer the following questions:
- Do you have an increased risk for developing
HIV? You have an increased risk of developing HIV if you:
- Are a man who has sex with men.
- Have more than one sex partner, especially if one of you injects drugs.
- Inject drugs or steroids, especially if you share needles, syringes, cookers, or other equipment used to inject drugs.
- Have high-risk partner(s) (a man or woman who has multiple sex partners or injects drugs, or a man who has sex with men).
- Have recently had a sexually transmitted infection.
- Have you ever had symptoms that might indicate illness, such as fever, weight loss, shortness of breath, or diarrhea?
- Have you ever had tuberculosis, fungal or yeast infections, liver infection (hepatitis), cold sores (oral herpes), or any other sexually transmitted infections? All of these diseases can present special problems for people who are infected with HIV.
- Are you a caregiver, such as a partner or parent, of a person who is HIV-positive and has hemophilia?
Your doctor will do a complete physical examination to find out your present state of health. This may include the following examinations:
- Temperature. Fevers are common in people who have HIV, even when no other symptoms are present. Fever can sometimes be a sign of a certain kind of infection or cancer that is more common in people who have weakened immune systems.
- Weight. Your doctor will weigh you at every visit. A loss of 10% or more of your body weight may be a result of wasting syndrome, which is one of the signs of AIDS, the last and most severe stage of HIV infection. You may need help getting adequate nutrition if you have lost weight.
- Eyes. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is a common complication of AIDS. It occurs more frequently in people who have a CD4+ cell count of less than 100 cells per microlitre (mcL). Symptoms include seeing floaters, blurred vision, or loss of vision. If you have symptoms of CMV retinitis, you should see an ophthalmologist as soon as possible. Some doctors recommend ophthalmologist visits every 3 to 6 months if your CD4+ cell count is less than 100 cells per microlitre (mcL).
- Mouth. Oral yeast infections (thrush) and other mouth sores are very common in people who are HIV-infected. You should have a dental examination at least twice a year. If you develop symptoms of gum disease (periodontal disease), you may need to see your dentist more often.
- Lymph nodes. Lymph node enlargement (lymphadenopathy) is not always caused by HIV alone. A biopsy may be considered if your lymph nodes are getting larger or if some are different sizes (asymmetrical).
- Abdomen. The abdominal examination may show an enlarged liver (hepatomegaly) or enlarged spleen (splenomegaly). These conditions can be caused by new infections or may indicate cancer. Your doctor will do an abdominal examination if you develop symptoms such as pain in the upper right or upper left part of your abdomen.
- Skin. Skin problems are common for people with HIV infection. A regular examination may reveal treatable conditions ranging in severity from seborrheic dermatitis to Kaposi's sarcoma.
- Gynecologic. Women who are HIV-infected have more cervical cell abnormalities than women who do not have HIV. These cell changes can be detected with a Pap test. You should have two Pap tests during the first year after you have been diagnosed with HIV. If the first two Pap tests are normal, you should have a Pap test once a year. You may need to have a Pap test more frequently if you ever have an abnormal test result.
Why It Is Done
A thorough physical examination will provide information about your present state of health. During later visits, your doctor will use this information to see whether your health status is changing.
The medical history and physical examination are done right after a person has been diagnosed with HIV infection (2 positive ELISA test and detection of HIV RNA or DNA.
These examinations will be done during regular follow-up examinations or if specific symptoms develop.
The medical history and physical examination may provide the following results.
No abnormalities are found. After the initial workup, talk to your doctor to decide how often to schedule follow-up examinations.
- The frequency of follow-up examinations depends on whether you have symptoms of illness and your initial viral load and CD4+ cell count measurements.
- Follow-up examinations may be done as often as every 3 to 6 months, possibly more often, especially right after you start medicine treatment.
If you do not have symptoms but you have a high CD4+ cell count and a low viral load, your doctor will probably recommend that you have follow-up examinations at least every 6 months or sooner if you develop symptoms of illness.
Signs of illness are found. Follow-up and treatment will depend on the specific problem.
What To Think About
Your family medicine physician or internist may not be able to diagnose and treat all the problems that can be caused by HIV infection. Your doctor may refer you to another doctor who specializes in conditions that affect different body systems. Before you make an appointment with a specialist, find out whether he or she has experience treating people who have HIV-related illnesses.
Complications of HIV may require treatment by the following doctors:
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