Pleural effusion

Pleural effusion is the buildup of fluid between the outer lining of the lungs (visceral pleura) and the inner lining (parietal pleura) of the chest cavity. This fluid buildup has many causes, including infection, inflammation, heart failure, pancreatitis, or cancer.

Minor pleural effusion may not cause any symptoms. A large amount of fluid may prevent the complete expansion of a lung, making it hard for the person to breathe. Possible symptoms of pleural effusion may include:

  • Difficulty breathing.
  • Chest pain.
  • Fever.
  • A cough.

A doctor may diagnose pleural effusion during a physical examination and then confirm the diagnosis with a chest X-ray.

Minor pleural effusion often heals on its own. If treatment is needed, it may involve removal of the fluid using a needle inserted through the chest wall (thoracentesis). The fluid may be sent to a lab to find out what is causing the fluid to build up.

Is it an emergency?

If you or someone in your care has chest pains, difficulty breathing, or severe bleeding, it could be a life-threatening emergency. Call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number immediately.
If you are concerned about a possible poisoning or exposure to a toxic substance, call Poison Control now at 1-800-567-8911.

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