acute kidney injury (AKI), which used to be called acute renal failure, occurs when a sudden
reduction in blood flow to the kidney (renal hypoperfusion) causes a loss of
kidney function. In pre-renal acute kidney injury, there is nothing wrong with
the kidney itself.
Pre-renal acute kidney injury is the most common type of acute kidney injury. It can be a complication of almost any disease, condition, or
medicine that causes a decrease in the normal amount of blood and fluid in
Causes of pre-renal acute kidney injury include:
Severe blood loss and low blood pressure related
to major cardiac or abdominal surgery, severe infection (sepsis), or injury.
interfere with the blood supply to the kidneys. Medicines such as ACE inhibitors and common pain medicines (NSAIDs) commonly cause
pre-renal acute kidney injury in people who already have an increased risk for
Treatment focuses on correcting the cause of the pre-renal acute kidney injury. Depending on the cause, the condition often reverses itself within a
couple of days after normal blood flow to the kidneys has been restored.
But if it is not reversed or treated successfully and quickly, pre-renal
acute kidney injury can cause tissue death in the kidneys and lead to intrinsic
(intrarenal) acute kidney injury.
ByHealthwise Staff Primary Medical ReviewerE. Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal Medicine Brian D. O'Brien, MD - Internal Medicine Adam Husney, MD - Family Medicine Specialist Medical ReviewerTushar J. Vachharajani, MD, FASN, FACP - Nephrology