The ages 11 through 14 years are often referred to as early adolescence. These years are an exciting time of many varied and rapid changes. Your child grows taller and stronger and also starts to feel and think in more mature ways. You may feel amazed as you watch your child begin to turn into an adult. But this can be a confusing time for both kids and parents. Both must get used to the new person the child is becoming.
From ages 11 through 14, a child develops in four main areas:
Yearly doctor visits are important to detect problems and to make sure your adolescent is growing and developing as expected. During these visits, the doctor will do a physical examination and give your child any needed shots. The doctor will also ask questions about your child's friends, school, and activities to see how he or she is doing.
It is a good idea to give an adolescent some time alone with the doctor. This gives your child a chance to ask questions that he or she may not feel comfortable asking you.
Adolescents should also have yearly dental checkups to make sure their teeth are strong and healthy.
Call your doctor anytime you have a concern about your child's physical or emotional health, such as:
A call or visit to your child's doctor can help you keep a healthy outlook and know how to recognize a true problem. This may help relieve tension between you and your child.
Being the parent of an adolescent can be challenging. Even if your child pushes you away at times, you still play a very big role in your child’s life. Try to stay positive and keep the lines of communication open. While it is good to let your child make decisions, realize that adolescents need and want limits that are fair and firm.
To promote healthy development:
Throughout these years, it is important to let adolescents know they are loved and accepted, no matter what happens, even if at times you don't agree with what they do or how they act.
Learning about adolescent growth and development:
Seeing a doctor:
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Rapidly changing bodies, confusion, excitement, new social situations, and increased reasoning abilities make ages 11 to 14 a thrilling and sometimes challenging time for children and parents. Watching your child gradually mature is an amazing process. It also can be puzzling for parents who may wonder during this transition, "Do I have a child or an adult?" Since neither is the case, you must continually renegotiate your relationship with and learn about your evolving adolescent.
Although each adolescent develops at his or her individual pace, general growth and development patterns can be grouped into four main categories.
The years 11 through 14 are exciting and confusing. Many parents have concerns about how their children will handle the many physical and emotional changes that usually happen during this time. Some of these common concerns include:
During this time of trial and error, offer open, positive communication while providing clear and fair rules and consistent guidance. You significantly influence your adolescent's habits and attitudes, choices, and adjustments to physical changes. But realize that your child's way of doing things does not have to exactly match your own.
Help your child identify important issues and be prepared for increasing responsibilities. Allow your child the freedom to figure things out in his or her own way within the boundaries you have set. Parents walk a fine line between respecting a teen's need for independence and privacy and making sure that he or she does not make mistakes that have lifelong consequences.
Promote your adolescent's physical development by doing the following:
Promote your adolescent's healthy emotional and social development by doing the following:
Promote your adolescent's cognitive development by doing the following:
Promote your adolescent's sensory and motor development by doing the following:
Your child's doctor can help you discuss difficult issues with your adolescent if you ever are having trouble doing so on your own. Keep in mind that important subjects, such as sex, should be addressed long before you think your child will face them.
Talk to your child's doctor if you are concerned about your child's health or other issues. For example:
Call a doctor or a mental health professional if your child develops behavioural problems or signs of mental health problems. Signs may include:
Also be aware that these problems can sometimes be warning signs of suicide.
Routine checkups (usually once a year) allow your child's doctor to keep a close eye on your child's general health and development. You also can discuss any concerns you have during these appointments. It may help you to go with a prepared list of questions (What is a PDF document?).
These checkups are important to detect problems and to see if your child is growing and developing as expected. The doctor will do a physical examination, suggest any needed shots (immunizations), and ask questions about your child's social, academic, relationship, and mental health status. For information about recommended shots, see the topics:
Beginning in adolescence, most doctors like to spend some time alone with your child during the visit. Although many provincial laws are vague about adolescents' and teens' rights to medical confidentiality, most doctors will clarify expectations with you and your child. Ideally, you will all agree that anything your child discusses privately with the doctor will remain confidential, with few exceptions. This gives your child an opportunity to talk to the doctor about any issue he or she may not feel comfortable in sharing with you.
Adolescents and teens also need to have regular dental checkups and to be encouraged to brush and floss regularly.
|Canadian Centre for Ethics in Sport|
|350-955 Green Valley Circle|
|Ottawa, ON K2C 3V4|
|Phone:||(613) 521-3340 ext. 3200|
BodySense works to promote positive body image in athletes. This website provides information about healthy sport practices and coping skills while encouraging athletes to develop self-respect and a sense of who they are.
|Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse|
|75 Albert Street|
|Ottawa, ON K1P 5E7|
The Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse (CCSA) is an independent national organization working to reduce health, social, and economic harm associated with substance abuse and addictions. The centre promotes informed debate on substance abuse issues and supports organizations seeking to prevent or treat substance abuse.
|Canadian Federation for Sexual Health|
|2197 Riverside Drive|
|Ottawa, ON K1H 7X3|
The Canadian Federation for Sexual Health (CFSH) is dedicated to promoting sexual and reproductive health services, education, abortion, and contraception in Canada. CFSH provides accurate information and services to support informed decision-making related to sexual and reproductive health. Topics covered include contraception, abortion, sexually transmitted infections, gender identity and sexual orientation, puberty, and others.
|Canadian Paediatric Society: Caring for Kids|
|2305 Saint Laurent Boulevard|
|Ottawa, ON K1G 4J8|
The Caring for Kids website was developed by the Canadian Paediatric Society and provides parents with information about child health and well-being.
Canada's Food Guide provides resources to help guide food selection and promote the nutritional health of Canadians. Resources include outlines of the food groups, the recommended range of daily servings, background information about the food guide, and other information about healthy eating.
|Health Canada: Tobacco|
This website provides information for adults and teens about smoking, its effects, and how to quit.
Other Works Consulted
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- Ozer EM, Irwin CE (2011). Psychological development. In CD Rudolph et al., eds., Rudolph’s Pediatrics, 22nd ed., pp. 271–272. New York: McGraw-Hill.
- Radzik M, et al. (2008). Common concerns of adolescents and their parents. In LS Neinstein et al., eds., Adolescent Health Care: A Practical Guide, 5th ed., pp. 969–972. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
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- Strasburger VC (2009). Media. In WB Carey et al., eds., Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics, 4th ed., pp. 192–200. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.
- Youngerblade LM, et al. (2009). Peers. In WB Carey et al., eds., Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics, 4th ed., pp. 152–158. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.
|Primary Medical Reviewer||Susan C. Kim, MD - Pediatrics|
|Specialist Medical Reviewer||Louis Pellegrino, MD - Developmental Pediatrics|
|Last Revised||March 28, 2012|
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