Urinary incontinence is the accidental release of urine. It can happen when you cough, laugh, sneeze, or jog. Or you may have a sudden need to go to the bathroom but can't get there in time. Bladder control problems are very common, especially among older adults. They usually don't cause major health problems, but they can be embarrassing.
Incontinence can be a short-term problem caused by a urinary tract infection, a medicine, or constipation. It gets better when you treat the problem that is causing it. But this topic focuses on ongoing urinary incontinence.
There are two main kinds of urinary incontinence. Some women—especially older women—have both.
Bladder control problems may be caused by:
Stress incontinence can be caused by childbirth, weight gain, or other conditions that stretch the pelvic floor muscles. When these muscles can't support your bladder properly, the bladder drops down and pushes against the vagina. You can't tighten the muscles that close off the urethra. So urine may leak because of the extra pressure on the bladder when you cough, sneeze, laugh, exercise, or do other activities.
Urge incontinence is caused by an overactive bladder muscle that pushes urine out of the bladder. It may be caused by irritation of the bladder, emotional stress, or brain conditions such as Parkinson's disease or stroke. Many times doctors don't know what causes it.
The main symptom is the accidental release of urine.
Your doctor will ask about what and how much you drink. He or she will also ask how often and how much you urinate and leak. It may help to keep track of these things using a bladder diary for 3 or 4 days before you see your doctor.
Your doctor will examine you and may do some simple tests to look for the cause of your bladder control problem. If your doctor thinks it may be caused by more than one problem, you will likely have more tests.
Treatments are different for each person. They depend on the type of incontinence you have and how much it affects your life. After your doctor knows what has caused the incontinence, your treatment may include exercises, bladder training, medicines, a pessary, or a combination of these. Some women may need surgery.
There are also some things you can do at home. In many cases, these lifestyle changes can be enough to control incontinence.
If you have symptoms of urinary incontinence, don't be embarrassed to tell your doctor. Most people can be helped or cured.
Strengthening your pelvic muscles with Kegel exercises may lower your risk for incontinence.
If you smoke, try to quit. Quitting may make you cough less, which may help with incontinence.
Learning about urinary incontinence:
Living with urinary incontinence:
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|Stress Incontinence in Women: Should I Have Surgery?|
When these muscles can't support your bladder well, the bladder drops down and pushes against the vagina. Then you can't tighten the muscles that usually close off the urethra. So urine may leak because of the extra pressure on the bladder when you cough, sneeze, laugh, exercise, or do other activities.
This is the most common type of urinary incontinence in women.
A chronic cough from smoking can make stress incontinence worse.
Urge incontinence is caused when the bladder muscle involuntarily contracts and pushes urine out of the bladder. Many times doctors don't know what causes this. But sometimes the cause is:
Overactive bladder is a kind of urge incontinence. But not everyone with overactive bladder leaks urine. For more information, see the topic Overactive Bladder.
Less common types of urinary incontinence have other causes. These types include:
The main symptom of urinary incontinence is a problem controlling urination.
It is common for a woman to have symptoms of both types of incontinence. This is called mixed incontinence.
Urinary incontinence usually starts gradually and slowly becomes worse. As it gets worse, a woman may:
Treating the cause of incontinence often gets rid of or controls these problems.
Some bladder problems are temporary. For example, you may have a urinary tract infection that causes incontinence, but the problem goes away after the infection is cured.
Sometimes several things combine to cause urinary incontinence. For example, a woman may have had multiple childbirths, be older, and have a severe cough because of chronic bronchitis or smoking. All of these might contribute to her incontinence problem.
Physical conditions that make urinary incontinence more likely include:
Diseases and conditions that may cause urinary incontinence include:
Medicines and foods that may make urinary incontinence worse include:
Call your doctor if:
Don't be embarrassed to discuss urinary incontinence with your doctor. Urinary incontinence is not an inevitable result of aging. Most women with incontinence can be helped or cured.
If you have urinary incontinence that develops slowly, you may be able to control the problem yourself. If home treatment is not effective, or if incontinence interferes with your lifestyle, ask your doctor about other treatments.
Health professionals who can diagnose and treat urinary incontinence include:
Your health professional may want you to see a doctor who specializes in problems of the urinary tract (urologist), who specializes in treating older people (geriatrician), or who specializes in treating women (gynecologist).
If you need surgery, it is important to find a surgeon who is experienced in the types of surgical procedures used to treat incontinence.
To prepare for your appointment, see the topic Making the Most of Your Appointment.
To diagnose the cause of your urinary incontinence, your doctor will ask about your medical history and do a physical examination. It may be easier for you to answer questions if you keep a bladder diary (What is a PDF document?) for 3 or 4 days before you see your doctor.
To check for stress incontinence, your doctor may ask you to cough while you are standing.
Your doctor may also order these tests:
Urodynamic testing is typically done only if surgery is being considered or if treatment has not worked for you and you need to know more about the cause. It provides a more advanced way to check bladder function.
The actual tests done in urodynamic testing often vary. They may include:
If the cause of incontinence is not identified by the above tests, more extensive tests may be needed.
Urinary incontinence isn't an inevitable result of aging. Most women who have it can be helped or cured.
The best treatment depends on the cause of your incontinence and your personal preferences. Treatments include:
Behavioural training, exercises and lifestyle changes, and medicines are usually tried first. If the problem does not get better, your doctor may try another treatment or do more tests.
When there is more than one cause for incontinence, the most significant cause is treated first, followed by treatment for the secondary cause, if needed.
You may reduce your chances for urinary incontinence by:
If you have urinary incontinence, you can take some steps on your own that may stop or reduce the problem.
Losing weight often helps stress incontinence. Remember that effective weight-loss programs depend on a combination of diet and exercise.
To learn more, see:
Sometimes making lifestyle changes can help with urge incontinence. Try to identify any foods that might irritate your bladder—including citrus fruits, chocolate, tomatoes, vinegars, dairy products, aspartame, and spicy foods—and cut back on them. Also, avoid alcohol and caffeine.
If you smoke, try to quit. This may reduce coughing, which may reduce your problem with incontinence. For more information, see the topic Quitting Smoking.
Take steps to avoid constipation:
Urinary incontinence may be treated with medicines. But in many cases, treatment with behavioural methods (bladder training, timed urination) and Kegel exercises are tried before medicines. These treatments, when combined with medicine, may help some women more than either treatment alone.
Botulinum toxin (Botox) may be used in people with nervous system diseases or problems (such as multiple sclerosis or a spinal cord injury) to stop bladder contractions that cause severe urge incontinence. But Botox will only be considered if other treatments haven't worked. Botox can cause serious side effects, including not being able to urinate at all.
There are several different kinds of surgeries to correct stress incontinence, which occurs when weakened pelvic floor muscles allow the bladder neck and urethra to drop. These surgeries seek to lift the urethra, the bladder, or both into the normal position. This makes sneezing, coughing, and laughing less likely to make urine leak from the bladder.
Surgery works to cure stress incontinence better than any other treatment. If other treatments (like pelvic floor muscle exercises) haven't worked to control your incontinence, surgery may be your best option. What kind of surgery you have depends on your preference, your health, and your doctor's experience.
Surgery is done much less often for urge incontinence, and the results are not as good.
Other types of treatment for urinary incontinence include:
Before trying behavioural methods or exercise for urinary incontinence, ask your doctor the following questions:
|Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC)|
|780 Echo Drive|
|Ottawa, ON K1S 5R7|
The mission of SOGC is to promote optimal women's health through leadership, collaboration, education, research, and advocacy in the practice of obstetrics and gynaecology.
|Canadian Continence Foundation|
|P.O. Box 417|
|Peterborough, ON K9J 6Z3|
The Canadian Continence Foundation provides information on a variety of incontinence issues.
|Canadian Urological Association|
|185 Dorval Avenue|
|Dorval, QC H9S 5J9|
The Canadian Urological Association provides information about a variety of urological conditions in the patient information section on this website. Some of the pediatric topics are bedwetting, circumcision, and undescended testicle. Adult topics range from prostate, kidney, and bladder health to erectile dysfunction and vasectomy.
|Canadian Women's Health Network|
|419 Graham Avenue|
|Winnipeg, MB R3C 0M3|
The Canadian Women's Health Network (CWHN) is a network of individuals, groups, organizations, and institutions. CWHN promotes information sharing, education, and advocacy for women's health and equality, and provides resources and information on women's health issues. In addition, it runs a clearinghouse of women-centred, health-related resources. The Web site also includes new research articles, information sheets, and press releases.
- Dumoulin C, Hay-Smith J (2010). Pelvic floor muscle training versus no treatment, or inactive control treatments, for urinary incontinence in women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1).
- Emmons SL, Otto L (2005). Acupuncture for overactive bladder. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 106(1): 138–143.
Other Works Consulted
- Barber MD, et al. (2008). Transobturator tape compared with tension-free vaginal tape for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 111(3): 611–621.
- Hartmann KE, et al. (2009). Treatment of Overactive Bladder in Women. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 187 (AHRQ Publication No. 09-E017). Available online: http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/tp/bladdertp.htm.
- Kirchin V, et al. (2012). Urethral injection therapy for urinary incontinence in women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2).
- Lipp A, et al. (2006). Mechanical devices for urinary incontinence in women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (7).
- Naumann M, et al. (2008). Assessment: Botulinum neurotoxin in the treatment of autonomic disorders and pain (an evidence-based review): Report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology, 70(19): 1707–1714.
- Shamliyan TA, et al. (2008). Systematic review: Randomized, controlled trials of nonsurgical treatments for urinary incontinence in women. Annals of Internal Medicine, 148(6): 1–15.
- Sung VW, et al. (2007). Comparison of retropubic vs transobturator approach to midurethral slings: A systematic review. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 197(1): 3–11.
- Tanagho EA, et al. (2008). Urinary incontinence. In EA Tanagho, JW McAninch, eds., Smith's General Urology, 17th ed., pp. 473–489. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical.
- Waetjen LE, et al. (2008). Factors associated with worsening and improving urinary incontinence across the menopausal transition. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 111(3): 667–677.
|Primary Medical Reviewer||E. Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal Medicine|
|Primary Medical Reviewer||Andrew Swan, MD, CCFP, FCFP - Family Medicine|
|Specialist Medical Reviewer||Avery L. Seifert, MD - Urology|
|Last Revised||November 1, 2012|
Last Revised: November 1, 2012
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