Alcohol Effects on a Fetus
British Columbia Specific Information
According to Canada’s Low-Risk Alcohol Drinking Guidelines, there is no safe amount, and no safe time, to drink alcohol during pregnancy. Drinking alcohol during pregnancy puts your developing baby at risk of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, also known as FASD.
FASD is the term used to describe the problems and disorders that a baby may have as a result of a woman drinking alcohol while she is pregnant. These problems and disorders can include birth defects, slow growth, brain damage, and vision and hearing problems. For information on FASD and the effects it can have on your baby’s health, see HealthLinkBC File #38e Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder or visit the Ministry of Child and Family Development About Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, Health Canada Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder and Public Health Agency of Canada Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder web pages.
Similar to drinking alcohol while pregnant, taking drugs during pregnancy or while breastfeeding may harm your baby. This includes prescribed, over the counter and prohibited drugs. For more information about the risks of exposing your baby to drugs, chemicals and diseases, visit the frequently asked questions section of the Motherisk website.
Individual, family, and small group counselling is available to people of all ages who are directly or indirectly affected by alcohol and other drug use. You can call the 24-hour BC Alcohol and Drug Information and Referral Service at 604-660-9382 or toll-free at 1-800-663-1441. You may also search HealthLinkBC's FIND Services and Resources Directory or contact your local health authority to find mental health and substance use support in your area.
Alcohol Effects on a Fetus
What effect does alcohol have on a fetus?
A woman who drinks alcohol while she is pregnant may harm her developing baby (fetus). Alcohol can pass from the mother's blood into the baby's blood. It can damage and affect the growth of the baby's cells. Brain and spinal cord cells are most likely to have damage.
The term fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) describes the range of alcohol effects on a child. The problems range from mild to severe. Alcohol can cause a child to have physical or mental problems that may last all of his or her life.
The effects of alcohol can include:
- Distinctive facial features. A child may have a small head, flat face, and narrow eye openings, for instance. This gets more obvious by age 2 or 3 years.
- Growth problems. Children who were exposed to alcohol before they were born may be smaller than other children of the same age.
- Learning and behaviour problems.
- Birth defects.
- Problems bonding or feeding as a newborn.
How much alcohol is safe?
Although the risk is higher with heavy alcohol use, any amount of alcohol may affect your developing baby. Heavy drinking (5 or more drinks on at least one occasion) during pregnancy can severely affect a developing baby.
You can prevent FASD by not drinking at all while you are pregnant. That is what many doctors suggest.
The effects that alcohol has on a developing baby depend on:
- How much, how often, and at what stage of pregnancy the mother drinks alcohol. The worst effects often are related to heavy alcohol use.
- Whether the mother used other drugs, smoked, or had poor health for any reason while she was pregnant. In these cases, the child is more likely to have problems.
- Traits passed down through families. Some babies are more likely to be harmed by alcohol than others. It's not clear why, but there may be a genetic link.
What can you do if you're pregnant and have had alcohol?
Try to talk openly with your doctor if you have had alcohol while you're pregnant. The earlier you tell your doctor, the better the chances are for your child.
If your doctor knows to look for FASD-related problems while you're pregnant, he or she can watch your baby's health both before and after birth. And the doctor will know to do more tests, if needed, as your child grows.
If you think you might have a drinking problem, talk with your doctor, counsellor, or other support person. Doing this can help you to see and address how alcohol may affect many parts of your life, including your pregnancy.
When are alcohol effects on a fetus diagnosed?
Signs of FASD don't always appear at birth. A doctor may be able to spot severe alcohol effects ( fetal alcohol syndrome, or FAS ) in the child at birth. But less severe effects, such as behaviour or learning problems, may not be noticed until the child is in school.
Sometimes the doctor can find severe problems before the baby is born. If your doctor knows about your alcohol use, he or she can order a test ( ultrasound ) to look for signs of FAS in your baby, such as heart defects or growth delays. The cause of problems that are found during the test may not be clear. But the findings alert the doctor to any special care a baby may need after he or she is born.
What is the treatment for a child born with alcohol effects?
Caring for a child born with alcohol effects takes patience. Help for your child may include extra support in school, social skills training, job training, and counselling . Community services may be able to help your family handle the costs of and emotions from raising your child.
Finding alcohol effects early, even if they are mild, gives a child the best chance to reach his or her full potential in life. Finding the problem early may help prevent problems in school and mental health problems, such as substance use problems , depression , or anxiety .
There is no treatment that can reverse the impact of alcohol on your baby's health. And there's no treatment that can make the effects less severe.
Health Tools help you make wise health decisions or take action to improve your health.
|Actionsets are designed to help people take an active role in managing a health condition.|
|Alcohol Problems: How to Stop Drinking|
|Growth and Development: Helping Your Child Build Self-Esteem|
Frequently Asked Questions
Learning about alcohol effects on a fetus:
Living with a child who has FASD:
Taking steps to prevent FASD:
Other Places To Get Help
|Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse|
|75 Albert Street|
|Ottawa, ON K1P 5E7|
The Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse (CCSA) is an independent national organization working to reduce health, social, and economic harm associated with substance abuse and addictions. The centre promotes informed debate on substance abuse issues and supports organizations seeking to prevent or treat substance abuse.
|Canadian Paediatric Society|
|2305 Saint Laurent Boulevard|
|Ottawa, ON K1G 4J8|
|Email:||To contact the CPS via email, go to www.cps.ca/en/about-apropos/staff.|
The Canadian Paediatric Society (CPS) promotes quality health care for Canadian children and establishes guidelines for paediatric care. The organization offers educational materials on a variety of topics, including information on immunizations, pregnancy, safety issues, and teen health.
|Learning Disabilities Association of Canada|
The Learning Disabilities Association of Canada (LDAC) is the national voice for persons with learning disabilities and those who support them. LDAC accomplishes these goals through public awareness about learning disabilities, advocacy, research, health, and education.
|March of Dimes|
|1275 Mamaroneck Avenue|
|White Plains, NY 10605|
The March of Dimes (United States) tries to improve the health of babies by preventing birth defects, premature birth, and early death. March of Dimes supports research, community services, education, and advocacy to save babies' lives. The organization's website has information on premature birth, birth defects, birth defects testing, pregnancy, and prenatal care.
|Phone:||1-877-439-2744 Motherisk Helpline
|Phone:||1-877-327-4636 Alcohol and Substance Use Helpline
|Phone:||1-800-436-8477 Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy Helpline
|Phone:||1-888-246-5840 HIV and HIV Treatment in Pregnancy
Motherisk is dedicated to research and education about drug, chemical, and disease risks during pregnancy. Based in the University of Toronto, Canada, this program provides evidence-based one-on-one counselling to women who have questions about how substances, radiation, and disease affect a fetus or infant.
Other Works Consulted
- Bertrand J, et al. (2005). Guidelines for identifying and referring persons with fetal alcohol syndrome. MMWR, 54(RR–11): 1–15. [Erratum in MMWR, 55(20): 568. Also available online: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5520a13.htm.]
- Bukstein OG (2009). Adolescent substance abuse. In BJ Sadock et al., eds., Kaplan and Sadock’s Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry, 9th ed., vol. 2, pp. 3818–3834. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
- Carlo WA (2011). Fetal alcohol syndrome. In RM Kliegman et al., eds., Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 19th ed., pp. 625–626. Philadelphia: Saunders.
- Carson G, et al. (2010). Alcohol use and pregnancy consensus clinical guidelines. SOGC Clinical Practice Guidelines No. 245. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada, v32(8)(Suppl 3). Also available online: http://www.sogc.org/guidelines/index_e.asp.
- Committee on Ethics, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (2008). At-risk drinking and illicit drug use: Ethical issues in obstetric and gynecologic practice. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 422. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 112(6): 1449–1460.
- Committee on Health Care for Underserved Women, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (2011). At-risk drinking and alcohol dependence: Obstetric and gynecologic implications. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 496. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 118(2, Part 1): 383–388.
- Cunningham FG, et al., eds. (2010). Teratology and medications that affect the fetus. In Williams Obstetrics, 23rd ed., pp. 312–333. New York: McGraw-Hill.
- First Nations and Inuit Health Committee, Canadian Paediatric Society (2002, reaffirmed 2010). Fetal alcohol syndrome. Paediatrics and Child Health, 7(3): 161–174. Also available online: http://www.cps.ca/en/documents/position/fetal-alcohol-syndrome.
- Goldson E, Reynolds A (2012). Child development and behavior. In WW Hay et al., eds., Current Diagnosis and Treatment: Pediatrics, 21st ed., pp. 73–112. New York: McGraw-Hill.
- Health Canada, Public Health Agency of Canada (2009). Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Available online: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hl-vs/iyh-vsv/diseases-maladies/fasd-etcaf-eng.php.
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2005). U.S. Surgeon General releases advisory on alcohol use in pregnancy. Available online:
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Task Force on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effect) (2004). Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Guidelines for Referral and Diagnosis. Washington, DC: United States Department of Health and Human Services. Available online:
- Wallen LD, Gleason CA (2010). Perinatal substance abuse. In CA Gleason, SU Devaskar, eds., Avery's Diseases of the Newborn, 9th ed., pp. 111–128. Philadelphia: Saunders.
|Primary Medical Reviewer||John Pope, MD - Pediatrics|
|Specialist Medical Reviewer||Ernest L. Abel, PhD - Reproductive Toxicology|
|Last Revised||April 15, 2013|
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