What is fifth disease?
Fifth disease is a very common childhood illness. Adults can get it too. It is sometimes called slapped-cheek disease because of the rash that some people get on the face. You spread the disease by coughing and sneezing.
Fifth disease is usually a mild illness that lasts a few weeks. It can be more serious for people with weak immune systems or blood disorders, such as sickle cell disease. It can also cause problems for the baby (fetus) of a pregnant woman who gets the illness, although this isn't common.
What causes fifth disease?
Fifth disease is caused by a virus called human parvovirus B19. (Only humans can catch and spread fifth disease. Although there are other parvoviruses that infect animals, you cannot catch these from your pet or any other animal.)
As a rule, people can spread fifth disease only while they have flu-like symptoms and before they get a rash. Usually, by the time the rash appears, you can no longer spread the disease to anyone else. Some people, such as those who have weak immune systems or blood disorders, may be able to spread the disease for a longer time.
What are the symptoms?
Symptoms usually appear 2 to 3 weeks after exposure to the virus. Early symptoms are similar to the flu—runny nose, sore throat, headache—and may be so mild that you don't notice them.
The rash comes several days later, first on the face and later over the rest of the body. It may be itchy. The rash usually fades within 5 days. For a few weeks, the rash may come back when you are out in the sun, get too warm, or are under stress. This doesn't mean the disease is worse.
Some people also get pain in their joints. This can last for several weeks or even months.
Not all people with fifth disease get a rash or feel sick.
How is fifth disease diagnosed?
Your doctor can diagnose fifth disease by doing a physical examination and asking questions about your medical history. The disease is easier to diagnose if you have the rash.
Tests aren't usually needed, but they may be done in some cases to confirm that you have fifth disease.
How is it treated?
Fifth disease usually goes away on its own. Antibiotics don't help with fifth disease, because the illness is caused by a virus, not a bacteria.
Home treatment can help with symptoms until you feel better.
- Use acetaminophen (such as Tylenol) or ibuprofen (such as Advil or Motrin) for fever, headache, or joint pain. Follow all directions on the label. If you give medicine to your baby, follow your doctor's advice about what amount to give. Acetaminophen and ibuprofen are different products with different dosing recommendations. Talk to your child's doctor before switching back and forth between doses of acetaminophen and ibuprofen. When you switch between two medicines, there is a chance your child will get too much medicine. Studies have not shown any added benefit from alternating these medicines. Do not give ASA to anyone younger than 20 because of the risk of Reye syndrome .
- Get extra rest.
- Drink plenty of fluids.
Try not to spread the illness. Wash your hands often, and stay home from school, daycare, or work. (When the rash appears, you can return.)
If you are pregnant or have a weak immune system or certain blood disorders, see your doctor. You may need extra checkups, tests, or treatment.
Frequently Asked Questions
Learning about fifth disease:
Other Places To Get Help
|Canadian Paediatric Society|
|2305 Saint Laurent Boulevard|
|Ottawa, ON K1G 4J8|
|Email:||To contact the CPS via email, go to www.cps.ca/en/about-apropos/staff.|
The Canadian Paediatric Society (CPS) promotes quality health care for Canadian children and establishes guidelines for paediatric care. The organization offers educational materials on a variety of topics, including information on immunizations, pregnancy, safety issues, and teen health.
|Canadian Paediatric Society: Caring for Kids|
|2305 Saint Laurent Boulevard|
|Ottawa, ON K1G 4J8|
The Caring for Kids website was developed by the Canadian Paediatric Society and provides parents with information about child health and well-being.
|Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)|
|1600 Clifton Road|
|Atlanta, GA 30333|
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The CDC works with state and local health officials and the public to achieve better health for all people. The CDC creates the expertise, information, and tools that people and communities need to protect their health—by promoting health, preventing disease, injury, and disability, and being prepared for new health threats.
|KidsHealth for Parents, Children, and Teens|
|Nemours Home Office|
|10140 Centurion Parkway|
|Jacksonville, FL 32256|
This website is sponsored by the Nemours Foundation. It has a wide range of information about children's health—from allergies and diseases to normal growth and development (birth to adolescence). This website offers separate areas for kids, teens, and parents, each providing age-appropriate information that the child or parent can understand. You can sign up to get weekly emails about your area of interest.
Other Works Consulted
- American Academy of Pediatrics (2009). Parvovirus B19 (Erythema infectiosum, fifth disease). In LK Pickering et al., eds., Red Book: 2009 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases, 28th ed., pp: 491–493. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics.
- Belazarian L, et al. (2008). Erythema infectiosum and parvovirus B19 infection section of Exanthematous viral diseases. In K Wolff et al., eds., Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine, 7th ed., vol. 2, pp. 1855–1858. New York: McGraw-Hill.
- Habif TP, et al. (2011). Erythema infectiosum (fifth disease). In Skin Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment, 3rd ed., pp. 295–296. Edinburgh: Saunders.
- Koch WC (2011). Parvovirus B19. In RM Kliegman et al., eds., Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 19th ed., pp. 1094–1097. Philadelphia: Saunders.
- National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Disease Control (2011). Parvovirus B19 (fifth disease). Available online:
- Salvaggio H, Zaenglein A (2010). Parvovirus infection. In MG Lebwohl et al., eds., Treatment of Skin Disease: Comprehensive Therapeutic Strategies, 3rd ed., pp. 533–535. Edinburgh: Saunders Elsevier.
|Adapted By||HealthLink BC|
|Adaptation reviewed by||HealthLink BC|
Adaptation Date: 3/4/2014
Adapted By: HealthLink BC
Adaptation reviewed by: HealthLink BC
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