Chickenpox (Varicella) Vaccine
Get all vaccines on time.
Immunization has saved more lives in Canada in the last 50 years than any other health measure.
What is the chickenpox vaccine?
The chickenpox vaccine protects against varicella-zoster virus infection, the virus that causes chickenpox. The vaccine contains a weakened form of the virus that does not cause disease. The vaccine is approved by Health Canada.
The chickenpox vaccine is provided free as part of routine immunizations. Call your health care provider to make an appointment.
Who should get the chickenpox vaccine?
|Chickenpox Vaccine||Child's Age at Vaccination|
|1 dose||12 months|
|2 dose||4-6 years|
The chickenpox vaccine is given to children as a series of 2 doses. The first dose is given at 12 months of age; a second dose is given at 4 to 6 years of age. For children who also need protection against measles, mumps or rubella, the 2nd dose can be given as the combined measles, mumps, rubella and varicella (MMRV) vaccine. For more information on the MMRV vaccine, see HealthLinkBC File #14e Measles, Mumps, Rubella and Varicella (MMRV) Vaccine.
The vaccine is given at the same time as other childhood immunizations.
The chickenpox vaccine is also provided to students in grade 6 who have not received 2 doses of the vaccine. Most grade 6 students would have received 1 dose of chickenpox vaccine on or shortly after their 1st birthday and will only need 1 more dose of vaccine. Grade 6 students who have never received the vaccine should get 2 doses at least 3 months apart.
The vaccine is also available as a series of 2 doses to people 13 years of age or older who have not been immunized or do not have evidence of immunity to chickenpox. The second dose is given 6 weeks after the first dose.
People who had chickenpox before their 1st birthday, should still get the vaccine as they may not have developed a long lasting immunity and could get chickenpox again. However, it is not necessary for those who had chickenpox or shingles at 1 year of age or older to get the vaccine.
It is important to keep a record of all immunizations received.
What are the benefits of chickenpox vaccine
The chickenpox vaccine is the best way to protect against chickenpox and its complications.
About 3 out of 20 children may get chickenpox even after being immunized. This illness will be much milder than if they had not been immunized.
When you get your child immunized, you help protect others as well.
What are the possible reactions after the vaccine?
Vaccines are very safe. It is much safer to get the vaccine than to get chickenpox.
Common reactions to the vaccine may include soreness, redness and swelling where the vaccine was given. A mild fever and a rash, which looks like chickenpox but with fewer spots, can occur about 2 weeks after the vaccine.
Very rarely, a person who develops a rash after being immunized can spread the virus from the chickenpox vaccine to others. To prevent spreading the virus to others the rash should be covered until the blisters have dried and crusted over.
For more information on Reye Syndrome, see HealthLinkBC File #84 Reye Syndrome.
It is important to stay in the clinic for 15 minutes after getting any vaccine because there is an extremely rare possibility of a life-threatening allergic reaction called anaphylaxis. This may include hives, difficulty breathing, or swelling of the throat, tongue or lips. If this happens after you leave the clinic, call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number. This reaction can be treated, and occurs in less than 1 in a million people who get the vaccine.
It is important to always report serious or unexpected reactions to your health care provider.
Who should not get the chickenpox vaccine?
Speak with a health care provider if you or your child:
- have had a life-threatening reaction to a previous dose of chickenpox vaccine, or any
- component of the vaccine including neomycin or gelatin;
- have an immune system weakened by disease or medical treatment;
- have had a blood transfusion or received other blood products within the past 12 months;
- have active untreated tuberculosis; or
- are pregnant or planning to become pregnant. Women should avoid becoming pregnant for 1 month after getting the chicken pox vaccine.
There is no need to delay getting immunized because of a cold or other mild illness. However, if you have concerns speak with your health care provider.
What is chickenpox?
Chickenpox is an infection caused by the varicella-zoster virus. The virus is easily spread through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes. You can become infected when you breathe in air or touch surfaces contaminated with the virus. The virus can be spread through contact with an infected person’s saliva such as by sharing food, drinks or cigarettes or by kissing. It can also be spread through contact with the fluid from chickenpox blisters.
Children with chickenpox can have on average 350 red, itchy blisters. Infection in newborns, teenagers, adults, pregnant women and those with weakened immune systems is more severe.
Complications from chickenpox include pneumonia (lung infection), encephalitis (swelling of the brain), and bacterial infections of the skin. Encephalitis can lead to seizures, deafness or brain damage. About 1 in 3,000 adults will die from the infection.
Infection early in pregnancy can result in a baby being born with birth defects. This is known as congenital varicella syndrome (CVS). Although this complication is rare, affected children may be of low birth weight, have scarring of the skin and problems with their limbs, eyes and brain. Chickenpox can also cause miscarriage or stillbirth.
For some people, the virus can become active again later in life and cause a painful rash called shingles. For more information on chickenpox or shingles, see HealthLinkBC File #44a Facts about Chickenpox or HealthLinkBC File #111 Shingles vaccine.
Mature Minor Consent
It is recommended that parents or guardians and their children discuss consent for immunization. Efforts are first made to seek parental/guardian or representative consent prior to immunization. However, children under the age of 19, who are able to understand the benefits and possible reactions for each vaccine and the risk of not getting immunized, can legally consent to or refuse immunizations.
For more information on immunizations visit ImmunizeBC at www.immunizebc.ca.