Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) Vaccine
Get all vaccines on time.
Immunization has saved more lives in Canada in the last 50 years than any other health measure.
What is MMR vaccine?
The MMR vaccine protects against measles, mumps, and rubella. The vaccine contains weakened forms of the measles, mumps and rubella viruses that do not cause disease. The vaccine is approved by Health Canada.
The MMR vaccine is provided free as part of your child’s routine immunizations. Call your health care provider to make an appointment.
Who should get the MMR vaccine?
The MMR vaccine is given to children as a series of 2 doses. The first dose is given at 12 months of age. As of January 1, 2012, the second dose of the vaccine was moved from 18 months of age to 4 to 6 years of age. For children who also need protection against chickenpox (varicella), the 2nd dose of vaccine can be given as the combined measles, mumps, rubella and varicella (MMRV) vaccine. For more information about the MMRV vaccine, see HealthLinkBC File #14e Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella (MMRV) Vaccine.
The vaccine is given at the same time as other childhood immunizations.
|MMR Vaccine||Child’s Age at Immunization|
|1st dose||12 months|
|2nd dose||4 to 6 years|
The MMR vaccine is also provided free of charge to the following people:
- infants aged 6 to 11 months who will be travelling to countries where there is measles, mumps or rubella disease, or that are known to have been in contact with someone with measles;
- women of child-bearing age who are not immune to rubella; and
- older children and adults who have not been immunized or do not have evidence of immunity to measles, mumps and rubella.
It is recommended that people born in 1970 or later get 2 doses of the vaccine. This is especially important for travelers.
It is important to keep a record of all immunizations received.
What are the benefits of MMR vaccine?
The MMR vaccine is the best way to protect against measles, mumps, and rubella, which are serious and sometimes fatal diseases.
When you get immunized, you help protect others as well.
What are the possible reactions after the vaccine?
Vaccines are very safe. It is much safer to get the vaccine than to get measles, mumps or rubella.
Common reactions to the vaccine may include soreness, redness and swelling where the vaccine was given. A mild fever, a rash that looks like measles and swelling of glands in the cheeks or neck can occur about 7 to 12 days after getting the vaccine. Temporary joint pain may occur in teenage and adult women.
For more information on Reye Syndrome, see HealthLinkBC File #84 Reye Syndrome.
Rarely, more serious reactions can include seizures caused by fever (about 1 child in 3,000), a temporary drop in the blood cells that help prevent bleeding (about 1 person in 30,000), and encephalitis, an inflammation of the brain (about 1 person in 1 million). The possibility of getting encephalitis from measles is about 1 in 1,000 which is much higher than from the vaccine.
It is important to stay in the clinic for 15 minutes after getting any vaccine because there is an extremely rare possibility of a life-threatening allergic reaction called anaphylaxis. This may include hives, difficulty breathing, or swelling of the throat, tongue or lips. If this happens after you leave the clinic, call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number. This reaction can be treated, and occurs in less than 1 in a million people who get the vaccine.
It is important to always report serious or unexpected reactions to your health care provider.
Who should not get the MMR vaccine?
Speak with your health care provider if you or your child:
- have had a life-threatening reaction to a previous dose of measles, mumps, or rubella vaccine, or any component of the vaccine including gelatin or neomycin;
- have an immune system weakened by disease or medical treatment;
- have had a drop in platelets, the blood cells that help prevent bleeding, after getting a previous dose of MMR vaccine without another cause being identified;
- have had a blood transfusion or received other blood products within the past 12 months; or
- are pregnant or planning to become pregnant. Women should avoid becoming pregnant for 1 month after getting the MMR vaccine.
There is no need to delay getting immunized because of a cold or other mild illness. However, if you have concerns speak with your health care provider.
What are measles, mumps, and rubella?
Measles, mumps, and rubella are diseases caused by viruses. The viruses are easily spread through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes. You can become infected when you breathe in air or touch a surface contaminated with virus. The viruses can also be spread through contact with an infected person’s saliva such as by sharing food, drinks or cigarettes or by kissing.
Measles, also known as red measles, causes fever, rash, cold-like symptoms and red, inflamed eyes that can be sensitive to light. It can lead to infections of the ear or lungs (pneumonia). More serious complications, occurring in 1 person in 1,000, include encephalitis, an inflammation of the brain. This can lead to seizures, deafness or permanent brain damage. About one person in 3,000 with measles can die from complications.
Mumps causes fever, headaches, and swelling of the salivary glands and cheeks. More serious complications include encephalitis. About 1 in 20 people with mumps get mumps meningitis, an infection of the lining of the brain. Mumps can also cause temporary deafness. Permanent deafness occurs in less than 1 in 20,000 people with mumps. About 1 in 4 adult men and teenage boys develop painful swelling of the testicles.
Rubella, also known as German measles, can cause serious complications and birth defects in an unborn baby including deafness, eye problems, heart defects, liver damage, and brain damage. This is called Congenital Rubella Syndrome. It occurs in about 9 out of 10 babies born to women who become infected with the virus in the first 3 months of their pregnancy. Rubella can also cause miscarriage or stillbirth.
These diseases are now rare in B.C. because of routine childhood immunization programs.
Mature Minor Consent
It is recommended that parents or guardians and their children discuss consent for immunization. Efforts are first made to seek parental/guardian or representative consent prior to immunization. However, children under the age of 19, who are able to understand the benefits and possible reactions for each vaccine and the risk of not getting immunized, can legally consent to or refuse immunizations.
For more information on immunizations visit ImmunizeBC at www.immunizebc.ca.